Tracking via pasted text

Plain text steganography and how it can be used against you

Zero-width characters can be used to embed hidden information inside of plain text. This is of primary concern to journalists and their sources, but it can affect anyone browsing the Internet. For example, a page can be dynamically generated server-side to include, between every few words:

By copying text from the page and pasting it somewhere public, you would be revealing this information to anyone who knew how to look for it. Details and demo in this article:

Be careful what you copy: Invisibly inserting usernames into text with Zero-Width Characters (Tim Ross, 2018)

To check if your browser displays zero-width characters, open:

Other plain text watermarking techniques / canary traps are explained on Zach Aysan's blog:

To fingerprint text, server software could embed a hidden number between every few words, matching a log entry that contains information about the visitor (username, IP address, cookie, browser details, referrer link, timestamp). For easily finding pasted excerpts online, the software could similarly hide a unique page-specific identifier within the text, that can later be put into search engines.

To achieve this, aside from zero-width characters, the software could use some of the other techniques described by Zach Aysan: "differences in dashes (en, em, and hyphens), quotes (straight vs curly), word spelling (color vs colour), and the number of spaces after sentence endings", different types of spaces, homoglyphs (a vs а), diacritic forms (ț vs ţ), ligatures (fi vs fi, Ⅳ vs IV, ½ vs 1/2), as well as inserting hard to detect typos into the text. However, zero-with characters are by far the most potent technique, since they can be used to encode any number of bits between any two visible characters.


A partial solution is to convert the text to ASCII, if language allows. There are also tools such as:

However, they don't protect against the more sophisticated versions of this hack. A more complete tool would have to include not just a list of forbidden/allowed characters, but also a a spellchecker and a way to detect trailing whitespace - an x-ray mode that might be triggered when dubious text is detected in the clipboard. And not just text, image-based steganography can be used in a similar way. A technical solution might never be perfect, but it could cover the vast majority of cases.

An almost perfect non-technical solution is to retype the text. You can also try downloading the page twice from different accounts / IP addresses and diff the two versions, or check if the hashes match. Another solution is to take a screenshot of the text and run it through OCR software.

Tools for text steganography

Unicode character search

Further reading

Text steganography

Control characters


NFKC normalisation

Unicode security considerations